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The Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Association (PVMA) is the only statewide professional membership association dedicated exclusively to the profession of veterinary medicine and the interests of the veterinary team. The focus of our association is professional development, advocacy, and practice vitality to ensure the continued success of our members.

 

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SPECIAL NOTICE TO VETERINARIANS: Vaccination Clinics

Posted By Jaime Markle, Friday, June 1, 2018

IMPORTANT NOTICE: The following ‘SPECIAL NOTICE TO VETERINARIANS’ was recently posted by the State Board of Veterinary Medicine.

SPECIAL NOTICE TO VETERINARIANS: Vaccination Clinics

In July 2007, the Board of Veterinary Medicine amended its regulation related to recordkeeping to specifically address the records that must be kept by a veterinarian participating in a public health or animal health vaccination clinic. The minimum required veterinary medical record must include an identification of the client and patient, the vaccine lot number, and the date and dosage administered. In contrast to the record required for a vaccination clinic, the veterinary medical record for a patient with which the veterinarian has established a valid veterinarian client patient relationship must reflect the complete evaluation and treatment of the patient.

The Board has received a number of complaints regarding animal health vaccination clinics at which, in addition to providing animal health vaccinations, veterinarians or those under the veterinarian’s supervision are administering, prescribing, or dispensing drugs such as flea/tick treatments and heartworm preventative drugs. In order to administer, prescribe, or dispense any treatment, biologic, or drug other that an animal health vaccination, a veterinarian is required to establish a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and create and maintain complete veterinary medical records on the patient. Establishing a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship requires and appropriate, complete physical examination and history of the animal, and recording the findings related to function of all body systems in the patient’s
veterinary medical record, as set forth in the Board’s recordkeeping regulation, 49 Pa. Code §31.221.

The Board’s mission is to protect the public, which includes ensuring that consumers understand the services they choose for their animals.

View Notice

 

 

The parameters of an “appropriate” examination may depend on the circumstance under which the veterinarian is seeing the animal. By way of example, a veterinarian is not required to examine the ears of an HBC animal brought to the veterinarian suffering from profuse bleeding in order to commence treatment, including administering drugs.

 

 

Tags:  animal  clinic  clinics  drugs  health  patient  treatment  treatments  vaccination  vaccine  veterinarian 

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FAQs about Medical Marijuana in Companion Animals

Posted By Jaime Markle, Friday, August 25, 2017
Updated: Friday, June 1, 2018

Medical Marijuana

FAQs about Medical Marijuana in Companion Animals

By Carrie Jurney DVM DACVIM (Neurology) 

With the rise in popularity of medical and recreational marijuana in humans, it follows that people will be curious about using these products in their pets. This is still a tricky subject for the veterinarian, as evidence is lacking and legality is questionable at best for our patient population. 

As a practicing neurologist in San Francisco, it’s a conversation I have frequently. This prompted me to research the efficacy, safety and legality of these products for veterinary patients. Here’s what my investigations have shown: 

Is it legal to prescribe? 

The short answer is medical marijuana is not legal to prescribe for companion animals anywhere in the United States. There has yet to be a state that included veterinarians in the legal language for their medical marijuana laws, so regardless of the laws for human consumption in your state, veterinarians are in no way excluded from the federal law. 

It is equally important to note that the AVMA and the FDA state that these products are not known to be safe nor efficacious. 1, 2 When I contacted the Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Board about their recommendations, they stated that there have been no specific policy or regulations made on this subject. 

What about supplements? 

There are supplements widely available on the internet, many are based on cannabidiol or CBD. There are several pet focused brands. The legal definition of these products is still under debate. In December of 2016 the DEA announced a new definition for marijuana that included CBD as a marijuana extract, and therefore a Schedule 1 substance.3 The Hemp Industry Association has responded, and there is legal action pending, that this designation violates Sec 7606 of the Farm Bill which allows for the legal sale of cannabis based products with less than 0.3% THC.4

Is it safe?

Marijuana is a fairly safe product in terms of fatal toxicity. There have been only 2 reported fatalities from marijuana toxicity in 338 clinical cases in the veterinary literature, although one of these studies noted that the volume of cases seen for toxicity has risen sharply with legalization.5,6

It is also important to note that across many studies in human medicine there are consistent reports of adverse effects associated with medical use. Doses and formulations that would be well tolerated in our veterinary species are still not known. 

An additional concern are reports of pesticides in dispensary obtained marijuana products. In one such report 84% of tested samples had unacceptable levels of pesticides.7 Legal regulation and enforcement of pesticide use on marijuana is still in development in most states.  

Does it work? 

There is interesting and emerging research on a variety of uses for medical marijuana for conditions like pain, seizures, nausea and cancer. Many of these studies do show statistically significant therapeutic action of these substances. As a neurologist, I have been particularly interested in the current research of CBD in pharmacoresistant epilepsy in children, for which there have been successful trials.8, 9 However, it is important to note there is no current evidence for efficacy in veterinary species. The limited bioavailability data we have in dogs does suggest that dogs metabolize these products differently than humans, so we should be cautious when directly translating the human literature to our patient population. 10, 11

The Clinical Pharmacology lab at Auburn University is currently offering free cannabinoid monitoring in hopes of establishing an assay for toxicity and efficacy. You can submit samples via their webform

What do I say to my clients? When asked about these subjects from clients I say the following:

“I understand there is a lot of interesting information out there about marijuana. The truth is that we do not yet know what doses and formulation are safe or have any positive effect in pets. We do know from years of experience that pets can have some negative side effects from marijuana ingestion, so that makes me cautious. The research in humans is really interesting, but very new, and no research has been done in dogs (cats, horses, etc). Additionally, it is illegal for me to prescribe it, as veterinarians are not included in state medical marijuana laws.”


About:

Dr. Carrie Jurney

Carrie Jurney DVM DACVIM (Neurology) 
President, Jurney Veterinary Neurology, Redwood City, California


References:

  1. AVMA@WorkEditor. "A Sign of the Times: Medical Marijuana Use and Veterinary Medicine."AVMA@Work Blog. AVMA, 16 July 2013. Web. 01 July 2017.
  2. Office of the Commissioner. "FDA and Marijuana: Questions and Answers." U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. Office of the Commissioner, 30 June 2016. Web. 01 July 2017.
  3. Drug Enforcement Administration. "Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract." Federal Register. Office of the Federal Registrar, 14 Dec. 2016. Web. 01 July 2017.
  4. Hemp Industries Association. "Hemp Industries Association Responds to DEA Final Rule Regarding ‘Marijuana Extracts’." Hemp Industries Association News & Press Releases Hemp Industries Association, 16 Dec. 2016. Web. 01 July 2017.
  5. Meola, Stacy D., et al. "Evaluation of trends in marijuana toxicosis in dogs living in a state with legalized medical marijuana: 125 dogs (2005–2010)." Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 22.
  6. (2012): 690-696. 6. Janczyk, Pawel, Caroline W. Donaldson, and Sharon Gwaltney. "Two hundred and thirteen cases of marijuana toxicoses in dogs." Veterinary and human toxicology 46.1 (2004): 19-20.
  7. Angle, Patrick, and Steep Hill Labs, Inc. | Ste. "Steep Hill Launches New High Detection Cannabis Pesticide Testing in California." Steep Hill Press Release (n.d.): n. pag. Steep Hill Labs, 19 Oct. 2016. Web. 1 July 2017.
  8. Devinsky, Orrin, et al. "Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial." The Lancet Neurology 15.3 (2016): 270-278.
  9. Cross, J. Helen, et al. "Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces convulsive seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome: results of a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial (GWPCARE1)(CT. 001)." Neurology 88.16 Supplement (2017): CT-001.
  10. Samara, E. M. I. L., M. E. I. R. Bialer, and R. A. P. H. A. E. L. Mechoulam. "Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs." Drug metabolism and disposition16.3 (1988): 469-472.
  11. Samara, E. M. I. L., and M. E. I. R. Bialer. "Pharmacokinetics of the dimethylheptyl homolog of cannabidiol in dogs." Drug metabolism and disposition 16.6 (1988): 875-879.

Tags:  avma  cancer  cbd  companion animal  distribution  does  legality  marijuana  medical  medical marijuana  nausea  oil  pain  patient  pet focused brands  pets  pharmacy  prescription  products  seizures  supplements  toxicity  veterinarian  weed 

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